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Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries

Sibel ÇAŞKURLU.

Abstract
This study fundamentally seeks for an answer to questions as why world prices of food commodities began to soar and why small producers in the South did not benefit from these increases. Therefore, in the first section of the study, under agricultural division of labor, attempting to explain constant increases experienced in food prices by fluctuations in supply and demand conditions will be dwelt upon. On the other hand, “food regime” approach, enables monitoring of spatial and temporal change of agricultural division of labor. Looking at that way, change in food relations underlying fluctuations in supply and demand of agrifood is revealed. In this respect, first of all, the concept of “food regime” will be put forward in the second section of study and previous food regimes will be covered with respect to transformations that they brought about in international division of labor. Afterwards, all elements of the third global food regime that can be denominated as “Corporate and Financialized Food Regime” and has been prevailing since 1995 will be assessed in depth.

Key words: Global food crises, Food regime, International division of labor, Multinational corporations, Food sovereignty. JEL Classification: F02, Q17, Q18



KÜRESEL GIDA KRİZİ: ÜÇÜNCÜ GIDA REJİMİ, KÜRESEL SERMAYE VE GELİŞMEKTE OLAN ÜLKELER

Özet
Bu çalışma, iki soruya yanıt aramaktadır: İlk olarak, Dünya gıda fiyatları neden artmaya başlamıştır? Ve ikinci olarak da, Güney’deki küçük üreticiler, bu artışlardan neden yararlanamamaktadır? Çalışmanın ilk bölümünde, mevcut uluslararası tarımsal işbölümü altında, gıda fiyatlarında yaşanan sürekli artışları, gıda arz ve talebindeki dalgalanmalarla açıklamaya çalışan yaklaşımlar üzerinde durulacaktır. Bu yaklaşımlarda, küresel ısınma, akaryakıt ve gübre fiyatları, biyoyakıt üretimi, başta Çin ve Hindistan olmak
üzere, bazı gelişmekte olan ülkelerin değişen beslenme biçimleri, tarım sektörüne yönelen hedge fonları ve future işlemleri tarımsal ürünlerin fiyatlarının artmasında önemli etkenler olarak ele alınmaktadır. Ancak bu yaklaşımlarda, öne sürülen hiçbir nedenin gıda fiyatlarında sürekli hale gelen artışı tam olarak açıklayamadığı da kabul edilmektedir. Öte yandan, “Gıda Rejimi” yaklaşımı, tarımsal işbölümünün zamansal ve mekânsal değişiminin izlenmesini olanaklı kılmaktadır. Böylelikle, tarımsal gıda arz ve talebindeki dalgalanmaların altında yatan gıda ilişkilerindeki değişimler ortaya konulabilmektedir. Bu çerçevede, çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde ilk olarak “gıda rejimi” kavramından söz edilecek ve önceki gıda rejimleri, uluslararası tarımsal işbölümünde meydana getirdikleri dönüşümler bağlamında kısaca ele alınacaktır. Daha sonra, 1995’ten itibaren hüküm sürdüğü kabul edilen ve “Şirketleşmiş ve Finansallaşmış Gıda Rejimi” olarak da adlandırılan Üçüncü Gıda Rejimi’nin tüm unsurları ayrıntılı biçimde irdelenecektir. Yaşanan Gıda Krizi’nin, bu rejimin yapısal bir parçası olduğu ortaya konulmaya çalışılacaktır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Küresel gıda krizi, Gıda rejimi, Uluslararası işbölümü, Çokuluslu şirketler, Gıda egemenliği. JEL Sınıflaması: F02, Q17, Q18


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sibel CASKURLU. [Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. 2012; 23(Special): 161-194. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011


Web Style

Sibel CASKURLU. [Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]. http://www.ekonomikyaklasim.org/?mno=34392 [Access: December 13, 2017]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sibel CASKURLU. [Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. 2012; 23(Special): 161-194. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sibel CASKURLU. [Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. (2012), [cited December 13, 2017]; 23(Special): 161-194. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011



Harvard Style

Sibel CASKURLU (2012) [Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 23 (Special), 161-194. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011



Turabian Style

Sibel CASKURLU. 2012. [Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 23 (Special), 161-194. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011



Chicago Style

Sibel CASKURLU. "[Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]." Ekonomik Yaklasim 23 (2012), 161-194. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sibel CASKURLU. "[Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]." Ekonomik Yaklasim 23.Special (2012), 161-194. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sibel CASKURLU (2012) [Global Food Crisis: The Third Food Regime, Global Capital and The Developing Countries]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 23 (Special), 161-194. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.20011



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